|1. Parcani||Parcani||Slobozia (PMR)||
|2. Floreşti||Floreşti||Floreşti (Moldova)||
1 600 m²
General information on Moldova
|Largest cities||Bălți, Florești|
||3 395 600|
|Area||33 843 sq. km|
|Time zone||GMT +2|
General information on Transnistria
|Largest cities||Bender, Rîbniţa|
|Area||4 163 sq. km|
|Time zone||GMT +2|
Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country in South-Eastern Europe, located in the area between 2 rivers the Prut and the Dniester. The climate is warm temperate continental.
The average January temperature is -4 ° C, July +24 ° C.Rainfall varies from 400 mm (south) to 550 mm (north).
Soils Moldova comprises 745 species.
75% of the country is covered with chernozem. At least 10% is under the brown and gray forest soils. At least 7% are floodplain-meadow soils, and at least 8% of soil is under populated areas, ponds and other objects.
Chernozems of Moldova vary in quality. The most fertile of them are typical and leached chernozems, they occupy large areas in the north of the country. They contain the largest reserves of humus and provides high yields of early crops.
Ordinary chernozem and carbonate are common in low over flat spaces and terraces of the rivers, especially in the south within the South of the Moldavian plain, at least - in the central and northern parts of the country.
These chernozems are less fertile.
They are most suitable for the cultivation of cereals, sunflower, tobacco, grapes. Solonetz or alkaline chernozem soils are formed where the surface of the saline out of clay. These soils are in need of reclamation (amendment of gypsum and salt removal). Forest soils are common in the uplands forest zone at altitudes over 200 meters. They were formed under deciduous forests and are characterized by low power of humus. They fall into the gray, dark gray and brown forest soils.
The gray and dark gray forest soils are relatively widespread within the uplands of northern and central regions of Moldova. They are for the cultivation of sugar beet and cereal crops, orchards and vineyards, and often in need of application of organic and mineral fertilizers.
Brown forest soils are found only in Codri and occupy the highest and the wet area with altitudes over 300 m and are formed mainly under the influence of long-term impact of beech forests. Brown forest soils are suitable for the cultivation of fruit crops, legumes and aromatic tobacco.
Floodplain grassland (alluvial) soils are widespread in the floodplains. They are characterized by relatively high content of humus and a variety of texture. Some of these soil salinization and waterlogging, and therefore need to remove salts and falling groundwater levels. These soils are favorable for the cultivation of vegetables, fodder and fruit crops.
Moldova is an agrarian country. Agriculture provides more than two fifths of the national income. Grains (wheat, corn), sunflowers, sugar beets (which provides raw material for numerous sugar refineries), grapes, fruits, nuts and vegetables are cultivated in Moldova. Its orchards produce large crops of plums, apricots, cherries and peaches. Growing fruit is concentrated in the north, in the central regions and in the valley of the Dniester. An important commercial crop is tobacco. Cattle, sheep (including astrakhan), pigs and birds.Pond fisheries, bee-keeping are developing as well. Wine-making is one of the most important branches of agriculture (red and white dry wines, champagne, table wines, sherry, and brandy).
Main exports: wine, brandy, tobacco, fruits, vegetables, meat, textiles, leather. Major exporters: Russia, Italy, Germany, Ukraine, Romania.
Current situation and further perspectives of agricultural development of Transnistria
Transnistria is an industrial and agricultural republic where manufacturing is playing a key role in the formation of macro-economic indicators anyhow development of agriculture is also very important.
It is located in the southwestern part of the CIS. It shares borders with Moldova and Ukraine. Natural resource potential of the republic is represented by natural building materials, underground mineral waters, highly productive chernozem which takes more than 90% of the territory. The climate is temperate continental, taking into account the rainfall, the region is in the zone of insufficient humidity. Winter is short and mild (average January temperature is minus 3.9 ° C). The spring is early with intensive heating of the soil and the air. Long hot summers (average July temperature is +21 ° C).
A warm lingering autumn.
Frost-free period is 176 days, which makes growing of heat-loving crops such as tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, tobacco, melons, and fruits possible and the landscape favors the development of viticulture.
Major manufacturing centers: Tiraspol, Bender, Rybnitsa. Many types of products made in Transnistria are certified, fixing their compliance with international standards of quality. Agricultural sector combines agriculture, processing of agricultural raw materials, specialized infrastructure: transportation, storage, wholesale, retail, etc.
In agriculture remains a collective system of cultivation (collective and state farms). Main industries - grain, fruits and vegetables, wine-making. Generally agriculture can provide republic with all necessary food and to keep republic's independence from external supplies of key products. Agricultural lands occupy 272,756 hectares:
a) arable land - 227,576 hectares;
b) perennial plants - 21,393 ha, including:
- Gardens - 14,343 hectares;
- Vineyards - 6003 ha;
c) pastures - 23,660 hectares;
g) hay - 127 hectares.